Kirsch Center

Kristin Sullivan - Environmental Studies

Condensed Categories, Information, and Summaries For The E.S. Building Packet

  • Called the Kirsch Center for Environmental Studies (KCES). The site is at the Southeast end of the De Anza College campus near the ESA.
  • Seven Keys for a living building: committed people, open workshops, integrated design, continuing revisions, health: precautionary principle, inspiring places, stay close to nature.
  • Organizations/Groups involved: De Anza College Building Committee, VDR Architects (design), VBN Architects (associate), Donald Aitken (energy consultant), Pve Arup and Partners, U.S.A (mechanical and electrical engineers), U.S. Green Building Council (LEED Green Building Rating System.
  • Vision: interdisciplinary studies, distance learning, energy management, community outreach, teaches firsthand, energy efficient and environmentally friendly design, daylighting, direct gain sun spaces, integral photovoltaic tile roofing shingles, glazing, climate responsive design to cut heating/cooling/lighting costs, recycled materials, and healthy/non-toxic materials.
  • The E.S. Building is climate responsive, energy efficient, multi-purpose, nationally significant, and a model of community consensus.
  • The core values of the KCES are innovation, integration, and involvement. Innovation = by design, operation, and ultimate use. Building materials, heating and cooling, movable classroom walls, natural light and planting, all academic disciplines use, environment interwoven into the curriculum, hands-on examples and case studies. Integration= E.S. integrates studying rainforests, recycling, walls/floors/furniture use, transportation, gardening, heating and cooling of buildings. The Center integrates state-of-the-art energy and communications technologies through its whole building and environmentally responsible design. Involvement- by students, staff, faculty, individuals, corporations and foundations.
  • Building features: ~22,000 square feet using recycled steel framing and masonry, passive solar, natural daylighting, natural ventilation, rooftop photovoltaic panels, thermal mass in concrete floors, rainwater collection for irrigation, nontoxic components in flooring and paints.
  • The building: world class rotating exhibits in the atrium, high profile meeting spaces for the campus community, encourages social interaction in its design, will have three floors, lecture/lab/public spaces/seminar/office rooms, indirect fluorescent lighting (more efficient and reduces glare), fully accessible to all persons, fly ash content concrete, high R-value cellulose infill insulation, metal exterior doors, partitions made of recycled content steel studs with recycled content gypsum board, carpets leased from sustainable carpet manufacturer and replaced/recycled on a scheduled basis, non-chlorine or PVC flooring, interior door from certified sustainable harvested wood, low VOC paints and adhesives, urban environmentally friendly landscape, roof water runoff storage cistern will enable water to be used for irrigation, low energy and sustainable mechanical features. The heating, cooling, and lighting will be reduced 50% below California's energy efficient Title 24 standards.
  • Building's heating: passive solar, good insulation, ceiling fans, and a perimeter heating system. Cooling: outside air entering, closed windows when hot, overhangs, no ceiling fans, and some mechanical cooling. Building: well ventilated, raised floor with an energy- efficient air supply system, power generated by photovoltaics, (generate 50% of its own energy), PV roof, curtain wall glazing with PV materials, structure made of ~ all recycled steel frame, composite concrete.
  • Rooms:
    • a) atrium- long-term environmental studies projects, multimedia rotating exhibits, special events, tours, rented out for special community/business/private events and functions, daylit

    • b) large lecture classroom - up to 100 students,
    • c) distance learning classroom- up to 100 students(cameras, video conferencing, Internet connection),
    • d) wet biodiversity lab
    • e) laboratory preparation
    • f) learning center/resource center - Library Center for E.S., energy, and multimedia topics, allows for collaboration, outside resource center with videos, books, curriculum resources, teaching materials
    • g) group study- individual rooms for group study
    • h) computer study
    • i) multimedia training classroom
    • j) technical support
    • k) storage
    • l) faculty and staff preparation areas
    • m) large group study- informal conferences, group study, communication area
    • n) conference room- group discussions, meetings
    • o) special classroom (meeting room)- multimedia classroom, conference room, multimedia program
    • p) energy management technology- to demonstrate devices of building energy technology, computer classroom, statewide training center for the Energy Management Technology Program. There will also be solar hot water, electric vehicle charging stations, and parking.
  • The number of rooms is as follows: faculty offices, division office, lecture classrooms (2-50 student lecture rooms and 1-100 student lecture rooms) classes=4, labs=2 (2 labs: Energy Management Tech Lab and Biodiversity Lab) - Includes seminar/conference rooms, learning resource center, storage and other mediated learning spaces.
  1. Environmental Studies: interdisciplinary blending of science, math, social science, and technology, develops sustainable ways for humans to interact with environment, uses knowledge from various disciplines to solve problems.
  2. History of the E.S. Program - 1990- E.S. Program Concept developed within the Biology/Health Division. 1991- Developed core courses in E.S. 1993- Development of four degree/certificate programs. 1994-1999- VATEA funding of program development. 1995-1999- E.S. Building concept development.
  3. Career options - law, economics, pollution prevention, waste management, conservation, energy management, journalism, film/T.V./animation, sustainable business practices, health, toxicology, GIS, atmospheric scientist, air and water technologist, monitoring, watershed management, renewable technologies.
  4. Other facts:
    • Predicting 1.5 million new environmental jobs
    • E.S. Program caters to two groups of students, degree/certificates and transfers
    • E.S. integrates physical, biological, human, socioeconomics, and political principles.
    • E.S. students have completed internships with governmental agencies, consultants, non-profit organizations, in Costa Rica, etc.
  1. Daylighting in schools - Found that higher illumination levels (with skylights) increased the visibility and speed/accuracy of performing tasks. Daylit buildings seem to have increased light quality, better color rendition, absence of flicker, sparkle or highlights on three-dimensional objects, illuminate walls and faces, increase health and mood. Results of the study showed a "statistically compelling connection between daylighting and student performance (increased test scores in the three studied school districts).
  2. Daylighting - In terms of savings, found to be the single most powerful strategy that decreased the energy use (~30-70%) in commercial and institutional buildings (P.G.& E). The researchers found that daylighting in the customer service area of SMUD saves ~6,000/year in electric bills.
  3. "Creating a Sustainable Resource/Energy Index" - Allows for a systems approach to evaluating resource/energy use within California's Community Colleges: to assess impact on water, air, and the earth, to use resources more wisely. Steps suggested for the greening of California's Community Colleges: conduct an audit of resource use, develop a green building/sustainability index to assess the final score, assess the college's impact on the environment, develop strategies to decrease resource/energy consumption, implement strategies, provide incentives to institutions embracing green building/resource use strategies.
  4. Energy Smart Schools - Schools in the U.S. spend greater than $6 billion on energy per year. The high-energy costs of schools are due in large part to old-aged and inefficient buildings with inadequate heating, cooling, and ventilation, and with faulty roofs. Whole building approach: advanced technologies and products, energy efficient materials, passive solar designs to maximize performance and efficiency and decrease costs, decrease emissions (nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, and carbon dioxide), increase indoor air quality, increase student/faculty performance, "a living lab" and teaching book, benefits to students/community/U.S., encourages biking and walking through site location, help protect the local and global environment. To maximize the  of green schools built, we need smart legislation to ensure that we: use a whole buildings perspective, develop model green school design guidelines, conduct life cycle analyses of design options, and provide adequate funding. Increasing awareness of energy smart schools is perhaps the most effective way to implement change; accomplish through regional workshops and presentations to school boards, local officials, and parents.
  1. Whole Buildings Approach - People in the U.S. unnecessarily waste as much energy as what 2/3 of the world's population consumes: unnecessary energy waste in the U.S. amounts to ~$300 billion per year(~$570,000/minute). The potential for energy efficiency in buildings could: decrease energy use by 75% in U.S. buildings, decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 50%, save ~$130 billion/year in energy bills, and lighting innovations could save ~25% of the electricity used in the U.S. The whole buildings approach: decreases energy use, decreases environmental impact, decreases cost, increases comfort; has buildings that are energy efficient, uses renewable energy, includes passive solar, are daylit, are energy efficient and climate responsive; increase productivity, decrease absenteeism, and save on energy costs.
  2. Source: Green Building Principles
    1. Energy efficient and renewable energy resources: cost-effective energy technologies could decrease overall energy consumption in the U.S. by ~1/3 (worth ~$343 billion); energy efficient buildings: properly sited, airtight, uses energy efficient equipment/appliances/renewable energy, uses less energy
    2. Environmental Impact: decreases negative impact by preserving the site's integrity and natural character, having appropriate landscaping, and selecting low energy and local materials
    3. Resource Conservation: With recycled content, by decreasing construction waste, and by installing water and energy efficient products
    4. Indoor air quality- by using materials with less chemicals and toxins and by having mechanical ventilation systems
    5. Community issues: Building is near public transportation facilities, shopping, and recreation to increase biking and walking; utilize existing infrastructure to decrease sprawl.
  3. Build Better Buildings - Buildings still not performing at their full potential, as designers have not yet integrated building components into a cohesive whole. We must integrate advanced building technologies with renewable energy ("Whole Buildings" approach). Whole buildings strategies include:
    1. Passive solar strategies: siting, orientation, glazing, shading, "climate responsive",
    2. Advanced technologies = energy saving appliances, advanced energy controls and thermostats, efficient heating/cooling systems, photovoltaics, solar water heating systems
    3. Energy efficient materials = superior building materials like increased efficiency windows, insulation, brick, concrete masonry, and interior finish products. Governments role in improving U.S. buildings should be: implementing a robust U.S. building R & D program with a "whole buildings" foundation, providing sufficient resources (including funds) for training/education, partners to work with industry to stimulate demands for energy efficient buildings through public awareness, and we need to support the development of tools which measure building energy performance.
  4. Environmental Design Guidelines: "Typical Green Building Guideline Issues"- Important Information
  5. Criteria for Energy and Resource Efficient Buildings: The EEBA has developed criteria, within the following categories, for energy and resource efficient buildings (for design, construction, and comprehensive rehabilitation): energy efficiency, occupant safety, occupant health, durability, occupant comfort, and environmental impact, all with respect to levels 1-3
  6. Energy Surprises for the 21st Century: Due to improvements in technology, designs that integrate whole-systems and greater competitive pressures, energy is now being used more efficiently. Whole-system designs for efficiency, for example Interface Corporation's "pumping loop", show how simple changes in design mentality can save dollars and provide huge returns on investment. To design whole buildings and systems, it is important to break the barriers of owners, designers, construction contractors, and tenants by: having integrated design workshops with all involved parties, having performance-based fees which reward "green" architects, have public policy whereby building codes specify greater resource-efficient construction.
  7. Green Building Design: Successful green buildings are systems of integrated processes and products, they have increased efficiency, and they decrease overall costs. The article discusses the integrated approach to sustainable design, design workshops, principles of sustainable design, the sustainable issues that are typically addressed, and the phases (1-12) of an integrated design process.
  8. Recommended Requirements: Whole buildings encompass passive solar, climate responsiveness (climate adapted), and low energy principles. 
    • Climate responsive building- Ability of the building to respond to the comfort, lighting, and productivity needs of the occupants; accomplished through interior and exterior design and structural materials. Due to the building design, heating, cooling, and lighting systems are secondary.
    • Low energy design tool- The National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) and the Passive Solar Industries Council (PSIC) established a design tool which features 16 interacting energy, solar, and technology variables.
    • Passive solar design uses techniques to gain and distribute the sun's energy to serve the functions of collection, storage, and distribution. The building is naturally cooled, warmed, and ventilated and it depends upon appropriate building technologies and related industries.
    • Whole buildings are wholly participatory and consider the following: lifetime costing, maintenance, remodeling, promoting local products and labor, reuse, environmental impact, and the potential for reuse of building materials after demolition.
  9. Elements of 'Green' or Sustainable Buildings - EPA definition of Green Buildings: are environmentally friendly and designed to decrease direct and indirect environmental consequences associated with construction, occupancy, operation, maintenance, and eventual decommissioning. Sustainable Buildings Industry Council (SBIC) has a whole buildings approach to design and construction- Whole buildings are energy-efficient, have appropriate equipment for high indoor quality, have optimized site design, are daylit, and they are powered by mainly renewable energy sources. These "high performance" buildings help address five key national policy issues: affordability health/productivity/comfort, decreased pollution, decreased strain on the utility infrastructure, and conserving conventional fuel supplies. Rocky Mountain Institute's Principles for Sustainable Design- These principles provide a checklist of criteria for a sustainable building: appropriate use of land, efficient use of resources (i.e., water, energy, lumber), enhance health, strengthen local economies and communities, conserve species and their habitats, protects agricultural/cultural/archaeological resources, nice to live and work in, and economical to build and operate. EEBA (The Energy Efficient Building Association): Goals for Energy and Resource Efficient Buildings- Goals for energy and resource efficient buildings fall under the following categories: energy efficient, occupant safety and health, durability, occupant comfort, and environmental impact. Green Building Principles- Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development- Energy efficient and renewable energy resource principles: use airtight construction, use energy efficient equipment/appliances/, use renewable energy, look at environmental impact, conserve resources, provide for indoor air quality, and pay attention to community issues.

10. The Whole Building Design Approach- Is holistic in its design philosophy, uses design criteria, includes sustainable design and development for community colleges, considers all phases of the facility lifecycle, and is sustainable with respect to site, energy, materials, water use, indoor environmental quality, and operations and maintenance.

11. Green Building Rating Systems - 1) LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)- is voluntary, consensus-based, market-driven, based on existing technology, evaluates environmental performance from a whole buildings perspective over the buildings life cycle, provides a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building, based on accepted energy and environmental principles, spurred by the U.S. Green Council Membership, a self-assessing system designed for rating new and existing buildings. 2) Energy Star label for buildings- Established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy. It enables benchmarking of a commercial building's energy consumption based on a 0-100 scale. It consists of three important components that establish, assess, document, and communicate energy performance in a national context. 3) GSA Matrices- The General Services Administration has developed a "Sustainability Matrix" to help guide the sustainable design process.

12. Greening the Built Environment- "Star For Schools" discusses the fact that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy have added Energy Star benchmarks for K-12 schools to this first, national energy efficiency rating system for buildings (previously the "star" was only for office buildings). The benchmarking tool and label will be extended to retail stores and other building types during the next 12 months. This tool gives energy product and service providers a competitive advantage when they help customers achieve the Energy Star level for buildings.

13. LEED Green Building Rating System- This is the actual rating system with information about prerequisites and credits for the following categories: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resource, and indoor environmental quality. Under each prerequisite and credit number, there are the following categories: intent, requirement, and technologies/strategies. A one-page form allows people to score their project against the LEED Green Building Rating System and helps one to keep track of the prerequisites and the credits on the project and it is also used to track compliance.

14. Greening the Built Environment- The EDU Resource Center (EDU stands for Energy Design Update) is a new internet-based, one-stop source of energy-efficient building information.

15. Notes taken from Darren's discussion, meeting with Pat, Darren, and I on 6/16/00- The green E.S. Services Ridgehaven building was built in San Diego, California in ~ 1996; it is the first Energy Star building. There are 12 buildings (none above silver) in the U.S. that are LEED certified (to get into the silver and gold categories, the building must have the green principles integrated into the design). The LEED certification system was just recently implemented. A person can get accredited LEED (engineers, contractors, consultants, architects).

 

 POLICY

 

1. Existing Guidelines for Energy use in State Buildings and Schools - 1)

"statewide energy conservation and reduction policy goals", reviews two Sections and their stated goals to reduce energy, conserve energy and water, and use alternative energy supplies. 2) "requirements for state public buildings and publicly funded schools" explains the existing law, which requires that all new state public buildings and publicly funded schools be "models of energy efficiency", and that they take into consideration life cycle costs. 3) four Sections are mentioned in the "duties of the Commission to reduce wasteful, uneconomic, inefficient, or unnecessary consumption of energy" according the Public Resources Code. 4) "energy conservation in public buildings, Department of General Services" discusses two Sections. 5) the recently proposed legislation regarding energy efficiency standards in state buildings, Senate Bill 280, would require all stated building to exceed current energy efficiency standards and incorporate green elements into the design and construction of each building.

2. Recommended Requirements for the Selection of Architectural firms for All New and Retrofit Work on the Foothill and De Anza College Campuses" - The author suggests that the following should be District requirements: 1) new structures should be energy-efficient, sustainable, use local resources, be based on whole building analyses, take into consideration lifetime savings, 2) all existing buildings will be examined for energy savings methods and technologies, 3) the Project Manager must show evidence of whole building, energy-efficient, and integrated design and methodologies.

3. What has Changed?- 1) Agenda 21- A global partnership for future sustainability whose objective is to integrate environment and development issues at all levels of decision-making. Thee are 120 separate action programs outlined with six major themes. This Agenda was adopted by 172 nations at the United

Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on June 14th 2000. 2) ISO 14001- The International Organization for Standardization was set up in 1996. The standards concerning environmental management provide organizations with guidelines for an appropriate environmental management system to prevent pollution, comply with laws, etc. 3) Federal executive orders- The Greening of Federal Buildings, Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) for federal facilities (May 2000), and the Federal Fleet and Transportation Efficiency requirements are helping to drive the sustainability process.

4. Foothill De Anza Community College District Board Policy - 1) on Energy Conservation- "The Board recognizes both the moral and fiscal responsibilities to conserve energy and to manage utility systems efficiently". The policy states that there will be a comprehensive program of energy conservation; this program allows for implementation, maintenance, and participation by all persons within the District. 2) on Environmental Quality and Sound Practices- The Board has an obligation to make sure that the operations of the District are environmentally sound, as appropriate. Procedures (CEQA compliant) should be put into place for the environmental evaluation of District projects. There are "Guidelines for Administering Environmentally Sound Practices".

5. Berkeley Unified School District - Enacted environmental policies (1994) that established green building goals. Has policy on Materials/Indoor Air Quality and Energy Design Standards which deal with thermal comfort, lighting, ventilation, reducing energy consumption, improved energy conservation awareness and education, building materials, building systems, construction practices, energy use.

 

 EXAMPLES OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS-

 

1. The San Francisco State E.S. Center in Tiburon (Romberg Center).

2. The Greenhaven at Ridgehaven- The building: integrated design and outside consultants, was affordable, improved the built environment, conserved natural resources, increased the quality of life, added to a sustainable future, saved in energy and operation, is a healthy workplace, used creativity/leadership/vision, is cost effective, is a retrofit that decreased energy consumption and pollution, increased productivity and energy efficiency, used minimally toxic/noncarcinogenic materials, used recycled/renewable/sustainable/reused materials, installed an efficient heating/cooling/ventilation system, used more efficient pumps and motors, used adjustable speed drives and lower horsepower motors, has T-8 fluorescent lamps, electronic dimming ballasts, parabolic fixtures with reflectors, sensors, and a solar controlled window film. Building consumes less than half the kilowatt-hours as before and used less energy than 90% of the other commercial energy users in the County. In energy, it saves $84,000 per year.

3. Source: "Greening the Built Environment" from Green@Work (May/June/00)- The American Institute of Architects selected ten Earth Day 2000 examples of architectural design solutions that protect and enhance the environment. 1) Bainbridge Island, WA's City Hall 2) University of British Columbia, 3) Emeryville, CA's Resourceful Building, 4) Minneapolis, MN- The Green Institute's Phillips Eco-Enterprise Center, 5) Hanover, NH's Hanover House, 6) Austin, TX- The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, 7) Queens, NY- The New South Jamaica Branch Library, 8) Edensburg, PA's Department of Environmental Protection building, 9) Northland College, Ashland, WI's McLean Environmental Living and Learning, 10) Washington, DC's World Resources Institute Headquarters Office.

4. Greening the Built Environment- Colorado has become the first in the nation to offer a statewide energy efficient and earth-friendly designation of its homes. There are ~ 3,000 built green homes built under the Built Green Colorado program.

5. Examples of Architectural Designs Incorporating Sustainability Principles - 1) San Jose State University Solar Library, San Jose, California (1979)- The first State owned building in California that was permitted to have no mechanical thermal systems. It includes an active solar heating system and thermal mass and nocturnal ventilation for the cooling. 2) Sunset Magazine, National Editorial Offices, Menlo Park, California (1985)- Building: daylit, natural environmental thermal conditioning, thermal cooling from a direct ground-water well system, energy efficient. 3) Union of Concerned Scientists, National Headquarters, Cambridge, Mass. (1994)- Building includes glazing, insulation, daylighting, 75% lower energy consumption than the California standards, efficient lighting systems, and a photovoltaic system.

 

 ARTICLES ABOUT THE KIRSCH CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES BUILDING-

 

1. The Cupertino Courier- "De Anza organizers lobby for state-of-the-art facility" discusses the ten year long dream of an environmental studies building that would be built on the De Anza campus. Building: environmentally friendly, photovoltaic panels, a climate responsive design, windows that open, rotating exhibits, will have 'in-the-body' learning, natural ventilation, passive solar design, daylit, cut electricity/heating/cooling costs in half, will draw local professionals for conferences. The building will cost $12 million; six million of this will come from the voter-approved Measure E funds and the rest of the funds will be raised. Organizers have a broad base of grassroots support from staff, students, student government, and etc.

2. Memo from Martha Kanter- Discusses the recently approved $2 million gift from the Steven and Michele Kirsch Foundation (established in 1999 within the Community Foundation Silicon Valley) for the environmental studies building. There are two conditions from the Kirsch's, one is that they want the building named in their honor and the other is that they want the building to break ground within a year. They also have offered to help raise the rest of the needed funds. Attached to this memo is some information about the Kirsch's. The Kirsch's are interested in helping with solutions for the community, particularly in medicine and for the environment; they are well known generous philanthropists.

3. De Anza College's Marketing Communications Office News Release- This article titled "The Kirsch Foundation Awards $2 Million for an Environmental Studies Center" discusses the Kirsch's $2 million grant and the energy-efficient, climate-responsive, national model, green E.S. building. Kathleen Gwynn, president and CEO of the Kirsch Foundation stated that "it is imperative that innovative projects such as this one are supported" and that "we can make progress in addressing environmental issues only through demonstrating that energy efficient and renewable energy technologies work." Julie Phillips, coordinator of the Environmental Studies Program for 10 years is thrilled with the gift and said "We've worked tirelessly on this endeavor and feel privileged to share in this vision with Steve and Michele Kirsch...we believe we will transform energy policy in California community colleges and in the state of California."

4. San Jose Mercury News- The article titled "Environmental studies grant given" discussed the Kirsch's gift of $2 million for the environmental studies center. The Center will serve as a national model to educate students on environmental issues. Steven Kirsch stated that, since the Foothill-De Anza District is one of the largest community colleges in the U.S., the E.S. building would provide an opportunity to educate a lot of people about the environment (in a hands-on fashion). Construction on the project may begin next year. Martha Kanter, the De Anza College President, stated that she is looking for other individuals who are interested in helping the college to reach the building vision. She says that the building will be designed to limit energy use and will be a living laboratory.

 

 ARTICLES

 

1. November/December 1996- Solar Today on "Daylighting the Way in Oregon" by Burke Miller- The Norm Thompson Headquarters ~54,000 square foot office building: uses ~ 40% less energy than a new high Oregon energy standard conventional building, uses environmentally appropriate building materials, uses minimal energy and resource use, makes for a great working environment, costs no more than a typical office, is the first commercial building which was certified green under Portland's G.E.'s Earth Smart Program. This article contains information on the following subjects: integrated design, form and materials, daylighting, lighting controls, HVAC systems, energy performance, and the "rosy" financial picture.

2. July/August 1996- Solar Today on "Photovoltaic Roof Tile for Commercial Buildings" by Shugar and Dinwoodie. Photovoltaic tiles serve as both a roof and a solar electric power plant (PowerGuard patented in ~ 1991). This article contains information on the following subjects: design solutions, electrical connection, code compliance, tilt angle considerations, commercial building focus, passive savings, project implementation, cost decrease, and global sales/service/markets.

3. January/February 1997- Solar Today on "Doing it Right the First Time" by Hubbard- Performance-based fee contracts provide a bonus for architects and engineers if a building exceeds the energy-performance targets. Researchers at Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) have developed an innovative strategy to assure that designers are compensated for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. Since operating costs are a significant percentage of most buildings' operating budgets, the benefits of increasing the efficiency of a building include: decreased pollution resulting from energy production, decreased utility bills, an increased bottom line, a more attractive building, the decreased size of the mechanical systems, decreased absenteeism, and increased productivity.

4. September 1995- Solar Today (volume 19, number 3) on "A Voice from North America-Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD): Solar Programs- See the article for details. According to another article on SMUD, daylighting in the Customer Service Area has saved ~ $6,000 a year in electric bills.

5. January/February 1997- Solar Today on "Utility Green Pricing Programs".

6. January/February 1997- Solar Today on "Selling Solar: Financing Household Solar Energy in the Developing World."

7. Article by Eley, Syphers, Stein on "Contracting for New Building Energy Efficiency"- Typical energy end-use for an office in a temperate climate: lighting 24%, heat 5%, cooling 9%, fans 10%, hot water 6%, equipment 29%, elevators 17%.

 

 WHOLE BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TERMINOLOGY (Note: definitions are taken from the sources summarized in this document)

 

1. Agenda 21 - This is a global partnership for future sustainability whose objective is to integrate environment and development issues at all levels of decision-making. There are 120 separate action programs outlined with six major themes. This Agenda was adopted by 172 nations at the United

Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on June 14th 2000.

2. Climate responsive building- The ability of the building to respond to the comfort, lighting, and productivity needs of the occupants; this is accomplished through the interior and exterior design and the structural materials. Due to the building design, heating, cooling, and lighting systems are secondary.

3. Daylighting- Using natural light from the sun via skylights, sunspaces, and windows to light up a room naturally (during the daylight) without relying on artificial light.

4. De Anza College's future Environmental Studies Building- It will be climate responsive, energy efficient, multi-purpose, nationally significant, and a model of community consensus. The rooms will include lecture and lab classrooms, learning and resource centers, group and computer study areas, preparation and technical support rooms, conference and special classrooms, and an energy management technology classroom.

5. Environmental Studies- A problem solving interdisciplinary blending of science, math, social science, and technology which seeks to develop sustainable ways for human societies to interact with the environment. Careers in the E.S. field include environmental law, environmental economies, pollution prevention, waste management, conservation biology, energy management technology, journalism, film/T.V./animation, sustainable business practices, environmental health, environmental toxicology, GIS, atmospheric scientist, air and water technologist, environmental monitoring, watershed management, and renewable technologies.

6. Energy smart schools- They decrease consumption/cost, decrease emissions, increase indoor air quality, increase student/faculty performance, the school becomes a living lab and teaching tool, and there are benefits to students, the community, and the U.S.

7. Energy Star label for buildings- This was established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy and it enables benchmarking of a commercial building's energy consumption based on a 0-100 scale.

8. Federal executive orders- The Greening of Federal Buildings, Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) for federal facilities (the Order came out on May 2000), and the Federal Fleet and Transportation Efficiency requirements are helping to drive the sustainability process.

9. Green Buildings- The EPA's definition is that they are environmentally friendly and are designed to decrease direct and indirect environmental consequences associated with construction, occupancy, operation, maintenance, and eventual decommissioning.

10. GSA Matrices- The General Services Administration (GSA) has developed a "Sustainability Matrix" to help guide the sustainable design process.

11. ISO 14001- This is the International Organization for Standardization that was set up in 1996. The standards concerning environmental management provide organizations with guidelines for an appropriate environmental management system to prevent pollution, comply with laws, etc.

12. LEED Green Building Rating System (U.S. Green Building Council)- This rating system has information about prerequisites and credits for the following categories: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resource, and indoor environmental quality.

13. Low energy design tool- The National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) and the Passive Solar Industries Council (PSIC) established a design tool which features 16 interacting energy, solar, and technology variables.

14. Passive solar- The design used techniques to gain and distribute the sun's energy to serve the functions of collection, storage, and distribution. The building is naturally cooled, warmed, and ventilated and it depends upon appropriate building technologies and related industries.

15. Sustainable Resource/Energy Index- This index allows for a systems approach to evaluating resource/energy use within California's Community Colleges.

16. Whole buildings- Include passive solar strategies (siting, orientation, glazing, shading, "climate responsive"), advanced technologies (energy saving appliances, advanced energy controls and thermostats, efficient heating/cooling systems, photovoltaics, solar water heating systems), and the use of energy efficient materials (superior building materials like increased efficiency windows, insulation, brick, concrete masonry, and interior finish products). They are wholly participatory and consider the following: lifetime costing, maintenance, remodeling, promoting local products and labor, reuse, environmental impact, and the potential for reuse of building materials after demolition.

 

 WEBSITES OF INTEREST (Note: websites listed below are also found in the document)

 

1. www.usgbc.org = U.S. Green Building Council (LEED Green Building Rating System).

2. http://saturn.deanza.fhda.edu/depts/bio-health/esbuilding/home.html or http://environmentalstudies.fhda.edu = De Anza College's E.S. Building website.

3. http://www.sustainable.gov/buildings/gbprinc.htm = Green Building Principles.

4. www.psic.org = The Passive Solar Industries Council.

5. www.rmi.org = The Rocky Mountain Institute.

6. www.epa.gov/buildings = Energy Star label for buildings.

7. dcrowley@cutter.com = EDU (Energy Design Update) Resource Center is a new Internet-based, one-stop source of energy-efficient building information. To get a free trial to the EDU Resource Center, contact Dennis Crowley at (800) 964-5125 or (781) 648-5125.

8. ebn@ebuild.com and http://www.ebuild.com = Environmental Building News

9. www.e-architect.com = Environmental Resource Guide put out by the American Institute for Architects

10. http://www.eren.doc.gov/femp/ordermaterials.html = Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) products.

11. http://www.kirschfoundation.org/who/about.html = This is the website for Steve and Michele Kirsch whose foundation has approved a $2 million gift for the Kirsch Center for Environmental Studies to be built at De Anza College.

 

 STATISTICS ON WHOLE BUILDINGS (Note: statistics are taken from the sources summarized in this document)

 

1. The E.S. building's heating, cooling, and lighting will be reduced 50% below California's energy efficient Title 24 standards.

2. 36% of total U.S. primary energy is used in buildings. Buildings represent 66% of all national use of electricity.

3. Photovoltaics will allow the E.S. building to generate 50% of its own energy from renewable sources.

4. In terms of savings, a daylighting design was found to be the single most powerful strategy which decreased the energy use (~30=70%) in commercial and institutional buildings.

5. The U.S. currently spends greater than $6 billion on energy per year. The high-energy costs of schools are due in large part to old-aged and inefficient buildings. ~73% of schools were built prior to 1960. ~28,000 schools have inadequate heating, cooling, and ventilation. ~21,000 have faulty roofs

6. U.S. Energy Smart Schools can decrease the energy cost by as much as 40%. The savings are ~$36,000-48,000 per year (~2.8 million over the building life). The energy smart school decreases nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, and carbon dioxide emissions by ~ 1 million tons per year (60 million tons over life).

7. People in the U.S. unnecessarily waste as much energy as what 2/3 of the world's population consumes: unnecessary energy waste in the U.S. amounts to ~$300 billion per year (~$570,000/minute).

8. Heating, cooling, and lighting buildings consume ~1/3 of the energy used by modern societies, much unnecessarily wasted.

9. ~1/3 of the heated air in U.S. homes and buildings escapes (this amount is ~ equal to the energy in all of the oil which flows through the Alaskan pipeline per year).

10. Energy used by buildings resulted in (1995) in 35% of carbon emissions, 47% sulfur dioxide emissions, and 22% of nitrogen oxide emissions.

11. The potential for energy efficiency in buildings could: decrease energy use by 75% in U.S. buildings, decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 50%, save ~ $130 billion/year in energy bills, and lighting innovations could save ~25% of the electricity used in the U.S.

12. Commercially available, cost-effective energy technologies could decrease overall energy consumption in the U.S. by ~1/3 (worth ~$343 billion).

13. On average, residential energy use in buildings is as follows: space heating= 36%, other= 21%, clothes dryers= 3%, cooking 3%, refrigeration= 9%, lighting= 6%, water heating=14%, space cooling= 8%.

14. On average, commercial and industrial building energy use is as follows: space heating= 22%, other= 6%, cooling= 2%, refrigeration= 3%, lighting= 31%, water heating= 7%, space cooling= 18%, office equipment= 6%, ventilation= 5%.

15. U.S. buildings are responsible for ~ 35% of the emitted greenhouse gases. Climate-responsive buildings will require ~50-80% less energy to operate than conventional ones.

16. Pumping is the largest application of motors, and motors use ~3/4 of all industrial electricity in the U.S.

17. The Ridgehaven building consumes less than half the kilowatt-hours as before and the building uses less energy than 90% of the other commercial energy users in San Diego County. In energy use, the Ridgehaven building saves $84,000 per year, or about 65% cut per square foot annually. The inefficient sister building to Ridgehaven pays an average of $10,750 a month in utility bills while Ridgehaven pays $3,750. The building uses 52% less wattage due to T-8 fluorescent lamps, electronic dimming ballasts, parabolic fixtures with reflectors, sensors, and solar control window film.

18. The World Resources Institute Headquarters Office has lighting fixtures that save 70% of the electrical energy that is typically used.

19. The Union of Concerned Scientists building uses 75% lower energy consumption than the California's standards.

20. The Norm Thompson Headquarters building uses ~ 40% less energy than a new high Oregon energy standard conventional building

21. The Sacramento Municipal Utilities District's (SMUD) Customer Service Area has saved ~ 6,000 a year in electric bills (due to daylighting).

 




Contact
email Email: Kristin Jensen Sullivan
Phone: 408.864.8625
Office: KC 214
Office Hours:
Listed to the right of this page.

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Last Updated: 9/8/09