Condensed Categories, Information, and Summaries For The E.S. Building Packet
10. The Whole Building Design Approach- Is holistic in its design philosophy, uses design criteria, includes sustainable design and development for community colleges, considers all phases of the facility lifecycle, and is sustainable with respect to site, energy, materials, water use, indoor environmental quality, and operations and maintenance.
11. Green Building Rating Systems - 1) LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design)- is voluntary, consensus-based, market-driven, based on existing technology, evaluates environmental performance from a whole buildings perspective over the buildings life cycle, provides a definitive standard for what constitutes a green building, based on accepted energy and environmental principles, spurred by the U.S. Green Council Membership, a self-assessing system designed for rating new and existing buildings. 2) Energy Star label for buildings- Established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy. It enables benchmarking of a commercial building's energy consumption based on a 0-100 scale. It consists of three important components that establish, assess, document, and communicate energy performance in a national context. 3) GSA Matrices- The General Services Administration has developed a "Sustainability Matrix" to help guide the sustainable design process.
12. Greening the Built Environment- "Star For Schools" discusses the fact that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy have added Energy Star benchmarks for K-12 schools to this first, national energy efficiency rating system for buildings (previously the "star" was only for office buildings). The benchmarking tool and label will be extended to retail stores and other building types during the next 12 months. This tool gives energy product and service providers a competitive advantage when they help customers achieve the Energy Star level for buildings.
13. LEED Green Building Rating System- This is the actual rating system with information about prerequisites and credits for the following categories: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resource, and indoor environmental quality. Under each prerequisite and credit number, there are the following categories: intent, requirement, and technologies/strategies. A one-page form allows people to score their project against the LEED Green Building Rating System and helps one to keep track of the prerequisites and the credits on the project and it is also used to track compliance.
14. Greening the Built Environment- The EDU Resource Center (EDU stands for Energy Design Update) is a new internet-based, one-stop source of energy-efficient building information.
15. Notes taken from Darren's discussion, meeting with Pat, Darren, and I on 6/16/00- The green E.S. Services Ridgehaven building was built in San Diego, California in ~ 1996; it is the first Energy Star building. There are 12 buildings (none above silver) in the U.S. that are LEED certified (to get into the silver and gold categories, the building must have the green principles integrated into the design). The LEED certification system was just recently implemented. A person can get accredited LEED (engineers, contractors, consultants, architects).
1. Existing Guidelines for Energy use in State Buildings and Schools - 1)
"statewide energy conservation and reduction policy goals", reviews two Sections and their stated goals to reduce energy, conserve energy and water, and use alternative energy supplies. 2) "requirements for state public buildings and publicly funded schools" explains the existing law, which requires that all new state public buildings and publicly funded schools be "models of energy efficiency", and that they take into consideration life cycle costs. 3) four Sections are mentioned in the "duties of the Commission to reduce wasteful, uneconomic, inefficient, or unnecessary consumption of energy" according the Public Resources Code. 4) "energy conservation in public buildings, Department of General Services" discusses two Sections. 5) the recently proposed legislation regarding energy efficiency standards in state buildings, Senate Bill 280, would require all stated building to exceed current energy efficiency standards and incorporate green elements into the design and construction of each building.
2. Recommended Requirements for the Selection of Architectural firms for All New and Retrofit Work on the Foothill and De Anza College Campuses" - The author suggests that the following should be District requirements: 1) new structures should be energy-efficient, sustainable, use local resources, be based on whole building analyses, take into consideration lifetime savings, 2) all existing buildings will be examined for energy savings methods and technologies, 3) the Project Manager must show evidence of whole building, energy-efficient, and integrated design and methodologies.
3. What has Changed?- 1) Agenda 21- A global partnership for future sustainability whose objective is to integrate environment and development issues at all levels of decision-making. Thee are 120 separate action programs outlined with six major themes. This Agenda was adopted by 172 nations at the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on June 14th 2000. 2) ISO 14001- The International Organization for Standardization was set up in 1996. The standards concerning environmental management provide organizations with guidelines for an appropriate environmental management system to prevent pollution, comply with laws, etc. 3) Federal executive orders- The Greening of Federal Buildings, Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) for federal facilities (May 2000), and the Federal Fleet and Transportation Efficiency requirements are helping to drive the sustainability process.
4. Foothill De Anza Community College District Board Policy - 1) on Energy Conservation- "The Board recognizes both the moral and fiscal responsibilities to conserve energy and to manage utility systems efficiently". The policy states that there will be a comprehensive program of energy conservation; this program allows for implementation, maintenance, and participation by all persons within the District. 2) on Environmental Quality and Sound Practices- The Board has an obligation to make sure that the operations of the District are environmentally sound, as appropriate. Procedures (CEQA compliant) should be put into place for the environmental evaluation of District projects. There are "Guidelines for Administering Environmentally Sound Practices".
5. Berkeley Unified School District - Enacted environmental policies (1994) that established green building goals. Has policy on Materials/Indoor Air Quality and Energy Design Standards which deal with thermal comfort, lighting, ventilation, reducing energy consumption, improved energy conservation awareness and education, building materials, building systems, construction practices, energy use.
EXAMPLES OF SUSTAINABLE BUILDINGS-
1. The San Francisco State E.S. Center in Tiburon (Romberg Center).
2. The Greenhaven at Ridgehaven- The building: integrated design and outside consultants, was affordable, improved the built environment, conserved natural resources, increased the quality of life, added to a sustainable future, saved in energy and operation, is a healthy workplace, used creativity/leadership/vision, is cost effective, is a retrofit that decreased energy consumption and pollution, increased productivity and energy efficiency, used minimally toxic/noncarcinogenic materials, used recycled/renewable/sustainable/reused materials, installed an efficient heating/cooling/ventilation system, used more efficient pumps and motors, used adjustable speed drives and lower horsepower motors, has T-8 fluorescent lamps, electronic dimming ballasts, parabolic fixtures with reflectors, sensors, and a solar controlled window film. Building consumes less than half the kilowatt-hours as before and used less energy than 90% of the other commercial energy users in the County. In energy, it saves $84,000 per year.
3. Source: "Greening the Built Environment" from Green@Work (May/June/00)- The American Institute of Architects selected ten Earth Day 2000 examples of architectural design solutions that protect and enhance the environment. 1) Bainbridge Island, WA's City Hall 2) University of British Columbia, 3) Emeryville, CA's Resourceful Building, 4) Minneapolis, MN- The Green Institute's Phillips Eco-Enterprise Center, 5) Hanover, NH's Hanover House, 6) Austin, TX- The Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center, 7) Queens, NY- The New South Jamaica Branch Library, 8) Edensburg, PA's Department of Environmental Protection building, 9) Northland College, Ashland, WI's McLean Environmental Living and Learning, 10) Washington, DC's World Resources Institute Headquarters Office.
4. Greening the Built Environment- Colorado has become the first in the nation to offer a statewide energy efficient and earth-friendly designation of its homes. There are ~ 3,000 built green homes built under the Built Green Colorado program.
5. Examples of Architectural Designs Incorporating Sustainability Principles - 1) San Jose State University Solar Library, San Jose, California (1979)- The first State owned building in California that was permitted to have no mechanical thermal systems. It includes an active solar heating system and thermal mass and nocturnal ventilation for the cooling. 2) Sunset Magazine, National Editorial Offices, Menlo Park, California (1985)- Building: daylit, natural environmental thermal conditioning, thermal cooling from a direct ground-water well system, energy efficient. 3) Union of Concerned Scientists, National Headquarters, Cambridge, Mass. (1994)- Building includes glazing, insulation, daylighting, 75% lower energy consumption than the California standards, efficient lighting systems, and a photovoltaic system.
ARTICLES ABOUT THE KIRSCH CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES BUILDING-
1. The Cupertino Courier- "De Anza organizers lobby for state-of-the-art facility" discusses the ten year long dream of an environmental studies building that would be built on the De Anza campus. Building: environmentally friendly, photovoltaic panels, a climate responsive design, windows that open, rotating exhibits, will have 'in-the-body' learning, natural ventilation, passive solar design, daylit, cut electricity/heating/cooling costs in half, will draw local professionals for conferences. The building will cost $12 million; six million of this will come from the voter-approved Measure E funds and the rest of the funds will be raised. Organizers have a broad base of grassroots support from staff, students, student government, and etc.
2. Memo from Martha Kanter- Discusses the recently approved $2 million gift from the Steven and Michele Kirsch Foundation (established in 1999 within the Community Foundation Silicon Valley) for the environmental studies building. There are two conditions from the Kirsch's, one is that they want the building named in their honor and the other is that they want the building to break ground within a year. They also have offered to help raise the rest of the needed funds. Attached to this memo is some information about the Kirsch's. The Kirsch's are interested in helping with solutions for the community, particularly in medicine and for the environment; they are well known generous philanthropists.
3. De Anza College's Marketing Communications Office News Release- This article titled "The Kirsch Foundation Awards $2 Million for an Environmental Studies Center" discusses the Kirsch's $2 million grant and the energy-efficient, climate-responsive, national model, green E.S. building. Kathleen Gwynn, president and CEO of the Kirsch Foundation stated that "it is imperative that innovative projects such as this one are supported" and that "we can make progress in addressing environmental issues only through demonstrating that energy efficient and renewable energy technologies work." Julie Phillips, coordinator of the Environmental Studies Program for 10 years is thrilled with the gift and said "We've worked tirelessly on this endeavor and feel privileged to share in this vision with Steve and Michele Kirsch...we believe we will transform energy policy in California community colleges and in the state of California."
4. San Jose Mercury News- The article titled "Environmental studies grant given" discussed the Kirsch's gift of $2 million for the environmental studies center. The Center will serve as a national model to educate students on environmental issues. Steven Kirsch stated that, since the Foothill-De Anza District is one of the largest community colleges in the U.S., the E.S. building would provide an opportunity to educate a lot of people about the environment (in a hands-on fashion). Construction on the project may begin next year. Martha Kanter, the De Anza College President, stated that she is looking for other individuals who are interested in helping the college to reach the building vision. She says that the building will be designed to limit energy use and will be a living laboratory.
1. November/December 1996- Solar Today on "Daylighting the Way in Oregon" by Burke Miller- The Norm Thompson Headquarters ~54,000 square foot office building: uses ~ 40% less energy than a new high Oregon energy standard conventional building, uses environmentally appropriate building materials, uses minimal energy and resource use, makes for a great working environment, costs no more than a typical office, is the first commercial building which was certified green under Portland's G.E.'s Earth Smart Program. This article contains information on the following subjects: integrated design, form and materials, daylighting, lighting controls, HVAC systems, energy performance, and the "rosy" financial picture.
2. July/August 1996- Solar Today on "Photovoltaic Roof Tile for Commercial Buildings" by Shugar and Dinwoodie. Photovoltaic tiles serve as both a roof and a solar electric power plant (PowerGuard patented in ~ 1991). This article contains information on the following subjects: design solutions, electrical connection, code compliance, tilt angle considerations, commercial building focus, passive savings, project implementation, cost decrease, and global sales/service/markets.
3. January/February 1997- Solar Today on "Doing it Right the First Time" by Hubbard- Performance-based fee contracts provide a bonus for architects and engineers if a building exceeds the energy-performance targets. Researchers at Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI) have developed an innovative strategy to assure that designers are compensated for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. Since operating costs are a significant percentage of most buildings' operating budgets, the benefits of increasing the efficiency of a building include: decreased pollution resulting from energy production, decreased utility bills, an increased bottom line, a more attractive building, the decreased size of the mechanical systems, decreased absenteeism, and increased productivity.
4. September 1995- Solar Today (volume 19, number 3) on "A Voice from North America-Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD): Solar Programs- See the article for details. According to another article on SMUD, daylighting in the Customer Service Area has saved ~ $6,000 a year in electric bills.
5. January/February 1997- Solar Today on "Utility Green Pricing Programs".
6. January/February 1997- Solar Today on "Selling Solar: Financing Household Solar Energy in the Developing World."
7. Article by Eley, Syphers, Stein on "Contracting for New Building Energy Efficiency"- Typical energy end-use for an office in a temperate climate: lighting 24%, heat 5%, cooling 9%, fans 10%, hot water 6%, equipment 29%, elevators 17%.
WHOLE BUILDING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TERMINOLOGY (Note: definitions are taken from the sources summarized in this document)
1. Agenda 21 - This is a global partnership for future sustainability whose objective is to integrate environment and development issues at all levels of decision-making. There are 120 separate action programs outlined with six major themes. This Agenda was adopted by 172 nations at the United
Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on June 14th 2000.
2. Climate responsive building- The ability of the building to respond to the comfort, lighting, and productivity needs of the occupants; this is accomplished through the interior and exterior design and the structural materials. Due to the building design, heating, cooling, and lighting systems are secondary.
3. Daylighting- Using natural light from the sun via skylights, sunspaces, and windows to light up a room naturally (during the daylight) without relying on artificial light.
4. De Anza College's future Environmental Studies Building- It will be climate responsive, energy efficient, multi-purpose, nationally significant, and a model of community consensus. The rooms will include lecture and lab classrooms, learning and resource centers, group and computer study areas, preparation and technical support rooms, conference and special classrooms, and an energy management technology classroom.
5. Environmental Studies- A problem solving interdisciplinary blending of science, math, social science, and technology which seeks to develop sustainable ways for human societies to interact with the environment. Careers in the E.S. field include environmental law, environmental economies, pollution prevention, waste management, conservation biology, energy management technology, journalism, film/T.V./animation, sustainable business practices, environmental health, environmental toxicology, GIS, atmospheric scientist, air and water technologist, environmental monitoring, watershed management, and renewable technologies.
6. Energy smart schools- They decrease consumption/cost, decrease emissions, increase indoor air quality, increase student/faculty performance, the school becomes a living lab and teaching tool, and there are benefits to students, the community, and the U.S.
7. Energy Star label for buildings- This was established by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Energy and it enables benchmarking of a commercial building's energy consumption based on a 0-100 scale.
8. Federal executive orders- The Greening of Federal Buildings, Environmental Management Systems (EMSs) for federal facilities (the Order came out on May 2000), and the Federal Fleet and Transportation Efficiency requirements are helping to drive the sustainability process.
9. Green Buildings- The EPA's definition is that they are environmentally friendly and are designed to decrease direct and indirect environmental consequences associated with construction, occupancy, operation, maintenance, and eventual decommissioning.
10. GSA Matrices- The General Services Administration (GSA) has developed a "Sustainability Matrix" to help guide the sustainable design process.
11. ISO 14001- This is the International Organization for Standardization that was set up in 1996. The standards concerning environmental management provide organizations with guidelines for an appropriate environmental management system to prevent pollution, comply with laws, etc.
12. LEED Green Building Rating System (U.S. Green Building Council)- This rating system has information about prerequisites and credits for the following categories: sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmosphere, materials and resource, and indoor environmental quality.
13. Low energy design tool- The National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) and the Passive Solar Industries Council (PSIC) established a design tool which features 16 interacting energy, solar, and technology variables.
14. Passive solar- The design used techniques to gain and distribute the sun's energy to serve the functions of collection, storage, and distribution. The building is naturally cooled, warmed, and ventilated and it depends upon appropriate building technologies and related industries.
15. Sustainable Resource/Energy Index- This index allows for a systems approach to evaluating resource/energy use within California's Community Colleges.
16. Whole buildings- Include passive solar strategies (siting, orientation, glazing, shading, "climate responsive"), advanced technologies (energy saving appliances, advanced energy controls and thermostats, efficient heating/cooling systems, photovoltaics, solar water heating systems), and the use of energy efficient materials (superior building materials like increased efficiency windows, insulation, brick, concrete masonry, and interior finish products). They are wholly participatory and consider the following: lifetime costing, maintenance, remodeling, promoting local products and labor, reuse, environmental impact, and the potential for reuse of building materials after demolition.
WEBSITES OF INTEREST (Note: websites listed below are also found in the document)
1. www.usgbc.org = U.S. Green Building Council (LEED Green Building Rating System).
2. http://saturn.deanza.fhda.edu/depts/bio-health/esbuilding/home.html or http://environmentalstudies.fhda.edu = De Anza College's E.S. Building website.
3. http://www.sustainable.gov/buildings/gbprinc.htm = Green Building Principles.
4. www.psic.org = The Passive Solar Industries Council.
5. www.rmi.org = The Rocky Mountain Institute.
6. www.epa.gov/buildings = Energy Star label for buildings.
7. email@example.com = EDU (Energy Design Update) Resource Center is a new Internet-based, one-stop source of energy-efficient building information. To get a free trial to the EDU Resource Center, contact Dennis Crowley at (800) 964-5125 or (781) 648-5125.
8. firstname.lastname@example.org and http://www.ebuild.com = Environmental Building News
9. www.e-architect.com = Environmental Resource Guide put out by the American Institute for Architects
10. http://www.eren.doc.gov/femp/ordermaterials.html = Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) products.
11. http://www.kirschfoundation.org/who/about.html = This is the website for Steve and Michele Kirsch whose foundation has approved a $2 million gift for the Kirsch Center for Environmental Studies to be built at De Anza College.
STATISTICS ON WHOLE BUILDINGS (Note: statistics are taken from the sources summarized in this document)
1. The E.S. building's heating, cooling, and lighting will be reduced 50% below California's energy efficient Title 24 standards.
2. 36% of total U.S. primary energy is used in buildings. Buildings represent 66% of all national use of electricity.
3. Photovoltaics will allow the E.S. building to generate 50% of its own energy from renewable sources.
4. In terms of savings, a daylighting design was found to be the single most powerful strategy which decreased the energy use (~30=70%) in commercial and institutional buildings.
5. The U.S. currently spends greater than $6 billion on energy per year. The high-energy costs of schools are due in large part to old-aged and inefficient buildings. ~73% of schools were built prior to 1960. ~28,000 schools have inadequate heating, cooling, and ventilation. ~21,000 have faulty roofs
6. U.S. Energy Smart Schools can decrease the energy cost by as much as 40%. The savings are ~$36,000-48,000 per year (~2.8 million over the building life). The energy smart school decreases nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxides, and carbon dioxide emissions by ~ 1 million tons per year (60 million tons over life).
7. People in the U.S. unnecessarily waste as much energy as what 2/3 of the world's population consumes: unnecessary energy waste in the U.S. amounts to ~$300 billion per year (~$570,000/minute).
8. Heating, cooling, and lighting buildings consume ~1/3 of the energy used by modern societies, much unnecessarily wasted.
9. ~1/3 of the heated air in U.S. homes and buildings escapes (this amount is ~ equal to the energy in all of the oil which flows through the Alaskan pipeline per year).
10. Energy used by buildings resulted in (1995) in 35% of carbon emissions, 47% sulfur dioxide emissions, and 22% of nitrogen oxide emissions.
11. The potential for energy efficiency in buildings could: decrease energy use by 75% in U.S. buildings, decrease carbon dioxide emissions by 50%, save ~ $130 billion/year in energy bills, and lighting innovations could save ~25% of the electricity used in the U.S.
12. Commercially available, cost-effective energy technologies could decrease overall energy consumption in the U.S. by ~1/3 (worth ~$343 billion).
13. On average, residential energy use in buildings is as follows: space heating= 36%, other= 21%, clothes dryers= 3%, cooking 3%, refrigeration= 9%, lighting= 6%, water heating=14%, space cooling= 8%.
14. On average, commercial and industrial building energy use is as follows: space heating= 22%, other= 6%, cooling= 2%, refrigeration= 3%, lighting= 31%, water heating= 7%, space cooling= 18%, office equipment= 6%, ventilation= 5%.
15. U.S. buildings are responsible for ~ 35% of the emitted greenhouse gases. Climate-responsive buildings will require ~50-80% less energy to operate than conventional ones.
16. Pumping is the largest application of motors, and motors use ~3/4 of all industrial electricity in the U.S.
17. The Ridgehaven building consumes less than half the kilowatt-hours as before and the building uses less energy than 90% of the other commercial energy users in San Diego County. In energy use, the Ridgehaven building saves $84,000 per year, or about 65% cut per square foot annually. The inefficient sister building to Ridgehaven pays an average of $10,750 a month in utility bills while Ridgehaven pays $3,750. The building uses 52% less wattage due to T-8 fluorescent lamps, electronic dimming ballasts, parabolic fixtures with reflectors, sensors, and solar control window film.
18. The World Resources Institute Headquarters Office has lighting fixtures that save 70% of the electrical energy that is typically used.
19. The Union of Concerned Scientists building uses 75% lower energy consumption than the California's standards.
20. The Norm Thompson Headquarters building uses ~ 40% less energy than a new high Oregon energy standard conventional building
21. The Sacramento Municipal Utilities District's (SMUD) Customer Service Area has saved ~ 6,000 a year in electric bills (due to daylighting).
Email: Kristin Jensen Sullivan
Office: KC 214
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