Kirsch Center

Kristin Sullivan - Environmental Studies

Concept Maps: Energy

92% known, decreases pollution and environmental damage, saves dollars, creates jobs.  
SolarCool NaturallyFossil Fuels/Nuclear

Could be 50-80% of energy needs by 2040 or sooner


Passive = windows, greenhouses, sunspaces, thermal mass

~65% of heating, cooling needs: could be done now


Active = for part of space heating, water heating

Deciduous trees, window overhangs, awnings

PV or solar cell revolution

By 2050 could be ~30% of world's electricity (huge market: great opportunity for u.s.)

Also: water, tides/waves, wind, biomass, geothermal, solar-hydrogen revolution

Oil: U.S. = ~30%

(65% for transportation, 26% industry)


Most from ~300 mya.

25% world's commercial,

39% electricity (u.s. = 57%)


Natural Gas:
50-90% = methane (made by decomposition of organic matter)


High construction costs, operating costs, malfunctions, cover-ups, accidents, poor management

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
Evaluating ResourcesEnergy Efficiency
Use: Importance: To Improve:

Developed =

90% nonrenewable (oil, coal, natural gas)

10% renewable

Undeveloped =

60% nonrenewable

40% renewable

 U.S. = 43% unnecessarily wasted (fuel wasting motor vehicles, furnaces, leaks, poor insulation and design)

 Use waste heat=

Insulate leaks, cogeneration

Types and how use of energy affects quality of life/environment


  1. Lifestyle changes (alternative transportation, sweaters, lights)
  2. Energy efficiency = buy and support
  3. Space heating (best to worst: solar, natural gas, kerosene, oil, propane, electricity (1 in 4 homes)

Save in industry =

Uses 45% of energy use cogeneration, adjustable speed drives

Net Energy:

Useful over life: Used (first law), Wasted (second law), Unnecessarily wasted


Save in producing electricity = Negawatt


Transportation =

Uses 66% of oil, increase fuel effeciency, ecocars, moving people


Buildings =

1/3 energy used to heat, cool, light. solutions: superinsulate, solar appliances, lights, tax credit



Last Updated: 9/8/09